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Weinberg

Die Rebe lebt von Licht, Wärme und Wasser

The vine requires light and warmth. The quality of wine though depends on further factors: on the soil, that nourishes it and the type of planting. They say: the plant needs stress, for, the fewer grapes it carries, the higher quality the berries. Weinberg
This awareness leads to an only apparent paradox strategy: some winegrowers plant their vines notably dense, not in order to attain a high yield, but to increase the pressure of competition of the plants among each other. 

On narrow space, the vines must develop a deep root system, in order to get the nutrients from the soil. Also their leaves are more active. Thus, the individual vine develops only few grapes, which though are optimally provided and possess a high concentrated extract – the basis for wines with a strong character. 

Weinberg Another strategy follows pragmatically aspects: if the vines are planted in greater distance from each other, the winegrower may travel on his vineyard with the tractor. The distance also minimises the risk of pest infestation. The individual vine carries much more fruits, than it is he case with the dense planting. However, the grapes are not that much concentrated.
Which planting the winegrower prefers, does not least depend on the situation of his vineyard. The dense planting, is merely proper for flat sites.
 
The climate
Climate: Acid/Sugar: Taste:
Plenty of sun, high temperatures
plenty of sugar, little acid mild, acid poor wine, quite dull
Much rain, low temperatures little sugar, plenty of acid sour, hard wine
Well-balanced sun, rain, temperature good acid/sugar rate      tangy ,mild, fruity wine
 
The soil

The soil nourishes the plant. Is it deep or flat? Dry or moist? Which minerals does it contain? All these factors determine among others, which vine variety prospers and what quality it is able to create. Anyway, there is no rule of thumb for it. In fact, in overseas, marvellous qualities are produced from the same vine variety on totally different soils than in Europe. A supposition for a high grape quality is a dry, flat soil. Whereas, a deep soil, being able to save a lot of water, is rather suited for mass production.
Soil types: Areas and vine varieties:
Gravel soil Médoc: Cabernet, Merlot, Malbec
Granite Beaujolais: Gamay
Marl Chablis: Chardonnay
Lime soil Burgund: Pinot Noir, Chardonnay
Schist Moselle: Riesling
Chalky soil Champagne: Pinot Noir, Chardonnay
Volcanic soil Tokaji: Furmint
Terra Rossa Coonawarra (Australia): Syrah (also: Shiraz), Cabernet Sauvignon, Riesling
 
The labour in the vineyard
The vine requires far more maintenance than other fruit crops. If the winegrower also cares for the soil, he will be recompensed: as here the course is set for the wine’s quality.

In modern viticulture,
the mechanisation has established itself – this applies to the developped nations. Mulching, ploughing, manuring, pest abatement: with small tractors, the winegrowers drive their vineyards. Densely planted vineyards, are being belaboured with the aid of tractors, which drive over the vine lines. Wine terraces can only be belaboured intricately. Partly, It is worked manually here, like in former times. Disadvantage of the machines: their weight condenses this soil. The winegrower has to do something for the aeration.

Primary,
the grapevine grew on trees, it is a liana plant. The winegrower supports its urge for climbing by wires, pillars or woodenframes. It depends on the vine cut, whether quantity or quality is being attained. Concretely: How many buds remain with the grapevine? Two to three grapes are produced by every sprout, which results from a bud.

The modern vineyard is a monoculture. This makes it susceptible to diseases and pests – viruses, bacteria’s, fungus, ocarinas, and insects. While in former times, one without criticism with the aid of chemicals, fought the vine’s enemies, today more and more winegrowers are sympathetic to ecological mindsets. The integrated way of cultivation makes use of other, foresightedly sophisticated possibilities of pest abatement: you pick natural products and apply them at a point of time that complies with the biological cycle of the pest and grapevine. The biological thinking is also reflected in fertilisation. The principles of integrated way of cultivation follow strict conditions.
 
The vintage
In August, the grape reaches its maturity. The berries change colour and double their size, the skin becomes thinner. The vintage in September is the highlight of the wine year. In warm regions, the vintage begins earlier, in cooler ones, later. Though, the exact point in time, depends on variety, on the weather and – on the winegrower: he decides, whether to pick full ripe, overripe or noble rotten grapes. Overripe grapes just remain hung for a longer time on the vine. They produce less, but concentrated must for late vintages and selections. The winegrower extracts noble sweet wines from noble rotten berries.  They also remain hung for a long time on the vine, shrivel and finally get from the stage of over ripeness to the stage of putrefaction.

Whether traditional vintage by the hand or mechanical vintage, depends on the traditional consciousness of the winegrower, on the local conditions, but also on the costs – machines work faster and cheaper. However, they also have disadvantages: they don’t sort the unripe ones from the full ripe ones, the healthy ones from the rotten grapes and you can only apply them in a terrain, that is flat to some extent. If the vineyard is steep, the lots small, the vines old and low, manual vintage is recommended. By a sharp vine cutter, the winegrowers cut the ripe grapes from the stem, collect them in buckets and trailers and take them fast to the winepress, in order that the juice does not ferment before pressing.
 
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