This dark grape produces a strong, acid accentuated wine, which is enjoyed young. Widespread - main areas are Piemont, Emilia Romagna, Lombardei, California and Argentina.
All over the world, most premium wines are being produced from this vine - with many variations, from light bistro wines over fruity "New World wines" to tannin-rich premium wines. Blending vine variety of the great Bordeaux and of many Italian, Spanish premium wines. Especially in California and Australia, formidable qualities are being produced. Deep coloured and rich in tannins - with an intensive aroma of black currant.
„The little sweet one“, produces different from the name, a dry wine, full of character. Spread in Piemont. Used for many years due to its early maturity for inexpensive blends, the interesting Dolcetto vine is more paid attention to now.
The vine variety – is almost exclusively cultivated in the Beaujolais area. Gamay is the vine of France's most famous and popular wine of France, the Beaujolais. Uncomplicated and fruity, light and fresh.
Widespread and Spain's most popular vine enchants several vino tintos by its distinctive bouquet. Robust and heat resistant – can be found anywhere, where it gets very hot: Sicily, Southern Spain, and Australia. Strong, spicy, often blended with Tempranillo or Syrah.
Popular vine in Argentina, formerly popular in France: produces dark, tannin-rich wines with character and potential of ageing.
Spain's second most important vine with soft, full and berry fruity aroma. Often blended.
Very popular: is successfully cultivated throughout the world - fruity, mild aroma, less currant aroma and tannins than the "cousin" Cabernet Sauvignon. With fine olum and rose aromas. The deciding touch of the world's best and most expensive wines, are due to his bouquet. Exceedingly popular in Chile.
Outstanding and character strong vine of Italy – is almost exclusively being cultivated in Piemont. Is considered best vine of the world by experts. Little, thick-skinned highly aromatic vine with a powerful bouquet of roses and spices, tar and chocolate. Strange: attempts, to successfully cultivate this special vine in other countries, have failed so far.
Most famous type of vine variety of the great Pinot family. Velvety, soft, full-bodied. Very popular in France, Italy, Germany and Austria for fantastic red wines. In the New World – especially in California and Chile, outstanding wines are being pressed from this vine.
South African breeding on the basis of the Pinot Noir + Hermitage = Pinotage. It produces very dark wines, with earthy-spicy bouquet.
Most important Italian vine variety for red wine can be mainly found in Tuscany. Produces fruity, partly acid accentuated and strong wines.
One of the noblest red wine varieties of the world, which has its origin at the Rhône in France. In Australia known as Shiraz. Produces dark, tannin strong wines with a spicy, earthy aroma.
Most significant Spanish vine variety, Ribera del Duero and Rioja are the wines of the Tempranillo. Strong and acid accentuated in taste, the tannins gine the wine a long potential for maturity.
Most common Spanish vine for white wine, domiciled in the region ´La Mancha´. In former times, it produced rather heavy alcohol-rich wines, today, due to new technical possibilities; rather light, neutral-fruity wines are produced.
In Spain and Portugal extremely popular vine for aromatic wines, full of character
Worldwide cultivated, very manifold vine variety for acid accentuated and fruity wines. Centre zone on Loire. Popular in South Africa, it is also called Steen there.
For many, the queen of white vines. Worldwide cultivated variety: fine fruity, highly aromatic with a lot of fruit and body. From the origin in the French Burgundy to the New World in Australia, California and Chile, high-quality wines are being made from this premium vine. Chardonnay is also used for champagne production.
Just different: striking reddish vine variety with roses and scent of lychee. The name says it all, the strong spicy and self-contained, slightly oily taste is beloved in Alsace and Palatinate
Aromatic vine – in Italy and Spain (still) popular: due to its long time of maturity, it is more and more being ousted by more effective varieties. Famous for dry white wines and aromatic sweet wines.
Most popular German vine variety: fruity, full-bodied with characteristic touch of nutmeg. Müller-Thurgau is the result of a crossing from Riesling and Sivaner by Professor Hermann Müller from the Swiss Thurgau. Is increasingly becoming more popular in Eastern Europe.
Very widespread and variable: in all qualities and kinds, spread all over the world: from dry white wines in the Mediterranean area and the New World, over sweet sparkling wines in Italy to liqueur wines in Spain. They all have one thing in common: a distinctive taste of nutmeg and a highly aromatic scent.
In France and Germany (White Burgundy) popular vine variety for light and fruity wines with hot-blooded acid.
Famous vine for Italian trend wine, Aromatic, poor in acid, with a flowery touch. In Germany known as dry Grauburgunder and smooth Ruländer.
White vine variety of the Marca Trevigiana. Fresh, light and aromatic, almost exclusively utilised for the exceedingly popular Italian Prosecco Frizzante or Prosecco Spumante.
Germany’s most interesting vine variety, cultivated in France and Austria and also in the New World, spread in Australia. Considered as one of the best white varieties, slightly spicy, rich in acid and charismatic.
One of the most important varieties of France, but also domiciled in Italy and Austria. Flowery and a distinctive scent, reminiscent of grass and bell pepper. Popular vine in the new World, e.g. Australia, New Zealand and California.
Excellent vine for white wine from France – popular vine variety in Chile and Australia. Often blended Sauvignon Blanc or Chardonnay. Is used for dry wines, having a fresh citrus touch to them and applied for the great sweet wines of the Bordeaux area, where connoisseurs, for its elegant honey aroma, are appreciating it.
In Franconia popular aromatic vine for white wine. In entire Germany displaced off the leading position by more productive varieties such as Müller-Thurgau, also on retreat in Austria and Eastern Europe. Is increasingly applied for rebreeding.
Popular worldwide, Italy’s most spread vine variety, Very popular and productive, rich in acid, with a relative neutral taste and applied for palatable wines. Most famous substitute: Trebbiano d´Abruzzo
Good Italian vine for white wine; widespread in marks. The vine produces neutral fruity white wines
|Wine requires a moderate climate, therefore, wine cultivation areas may be clearly divided into two zones: between the 35th and 50th latitude (North America, Europe and Asia) as well as between the 30th and 40th latitude (South America, South Africa, Australia). Grapevines are easy to please and adaptable. Their distinct root development lets them overcome dry seasons of three months and more, while they have acclimatised to chilly winter temperatures in northern cultivation areas. Even on meagre soil, the vine prospers.
It does not want to forego one thing though: light. For this reason, it has even developped into a twiner. Through its dense leaves, it absorbs light, which is indispensable. For the photosynthesis – quasi the plant’s nourishment with energy.
|More precisely: chlorophyll transforms carbon dioxide from the air along with water into sugar. Wine is often cultivated close to waters. The reason: water reflects light, so intensifies it.
| Vine varieties
Some hundred vine varieties are known; however, only few play a role, in the economical sense. For the taste of the wine, not only the variety is decisive. Soil, climate and wine making are important factors that are responsible for the different variations.
| The berry
Flesh, skin and core make the berry, the fruit of the grapevine. It consists to 90 percent of water. During the making of white wine, the must is being fermented. Red wine is being fermented including flesh. Thus, it attains its red colour, for the dyestuffs are for the most part situated in the skins (mesh fermentation). By the way, the juice of white and red grapes is white. The size of the berry differs, depending on variety. Contrary to the table grapes, they are rather small, containing less flesh. At the same time this means, that their substances of content are higher concentrated. A further difference to the table grape is its thick skin. It contains colour pigments, tannins, and gustatory substances – the basis for the quality of the wine.
| Selection and selection of berries
Only full ripe and noble rotten grapes are being selected, unripe ones sorted out - the result: a red wine or white wine of remarkable quality. Selected wines show a rather higher alcohol content. Selection of berries designates a very special and expensive wine. For it, noble rotten or at least overripe berries are being cut out individually - individual handwork for a strikingly rich bouquet: exquisite, sweet and eminently fruity, these wines are qualified as an appetizer or digestive.